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2016考研英语阅读文章精细分析

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发表于 2015-5-31 11:29:33 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

基础阶段精读复习方法及步骤:
1 快速浏览选项,把握文章主题
2 精读各段落,攻克词汇和语法长难句
3 作答题目,理解文章含义
4 翻译全文,再次巩固复习词汇和语法长难句
下面我们为各位学子精细分析1994年Text4
“I have great confidence that by the end of the decade we’ll know in vast detail how cancer cells arise,” says microbiologist Robert Weinberg, an expert on cancer. “But,” he cautions, “Some people have the idea that once one understands the causes, the cure will rapidly follow. Consider Pasteur. He discovered the causes of many kinds of infections, but it was fifty or sixty years before cures were available.”
This year, 50 percent of the 910,000 people who suffer from cancer will survive at least five years. In the year 2000, the National Cancer Institute estimates, that figure will be 75 percent. For some skin cancers, the five-year survival rate is as high as 90 percent. But other survival statistics are still discouraging—13 percent for lung cancer, and 2 percent for cancer of the pancreas (胰腺).
With as many as 120 varieties in existence, discovering how cancer works is not easy. The researchers made great progress in the early 1970s, when they discovered that oncogenes, which are cancer-causing genes (基因), are inactive in normal cells. Anything from cosmic rays to radiation to diet may activate a dormant oncogene, but how remains unknown. If several oncogenes are driven into action, the cell, unable to turn them off, becomes cancerous.
The exact mechanisms involved are still mysterious, but the likelihood that many cancers are initiated at the level of genes suggests that we will never prevent all cancers. “Changes are a normal part of the evolutionary process,” says oncologist William Haywar. Environmental factors can never be totally eliminated; as Hayward points out, “We can’t prepare a medicine against cosmic rays.”
The prospects for cure, though still distant, are brighter.
“First, we need to understand how the normal cell controls itself. Second, we have to determine whether there are a limited number of genes in cells which are always responsible for at least part of the trouble. If we can understand how cancer works, we can counteract its action.”
13. The example of Pasteur in the passage is used to__.
[A] predict that the secret of cancer will be disclosed in a decade
[B] indicate that the prospects for curing cancer are bright
[C] prove that cancer will be cured in fifty to sixty years
[D] warn that there is still a long way to go before cancer can be conquered
14. The author implies that by the year 2000, __.
[A] there will be a drastic rise in the five-year survival rate of skin-cancer patients
[B] 90 percent of the skin-cancer patients today will still be living
[C] the survival statistics will be fairly even among patients with various cancers
[D] there won’ t be a drastic increase of survival rate of all cancer patients
15. Oncogenes are cancer-causing genes__.
[A] that are always in operation in a healthy person
[B] which remain unharmful so long as they are not activated
[C] that can be driven out of normal cells
[D] which normal cells can’ t turn off
16. The word “dormant” in the third paragraph most probably means__.
[A] dead                 [B] ever-present                 [C] inactive                 [D] potential
一、快速浏览选项,把握文章主题
根据题干及选项中出现的 “cancer”, “cancer patients” 和“cancer-causing genes”,可知,本文是一篇关于医学上癌症治疗的发展状况的科普文章。
二、精读各段落,攻克词汇和语法长难句
词汇精解
(1)in vast detail 非常详尽地;vast (a.)辽阔的,巨大的,大量的;detail (n.)细节,详情;in detail详细地
(2)microbiologist (n.) 微生物学家,micro-前缀表示“微小的,微观的”,如:microeconomics微观经济学
(3)caution (n.) 警告,告诫,小心,谨慎;(v.)警告,告诫;cautious (a.)小心的,谨慎的,~ of
(4)infection (n.) 感染,传染;infect (v.) infectious (a.)
(5)statistics (n.) 统计资料,统计(学),survival~ 存活人数的统计;statistical (a.)统计的,统计学的
(6)variety (n.)品种,多种多样,a~ of 各种,种种
(7)prepare against为防止……而准备
(8) counteract (v.) 对抗,抵制,中和;counter-前缀表示“反”,“逆”,如:counter-clockwise (a./ad.)逆时针方向
长难句精解
①The researchers made great progress in the early 1970s, when they discovered that oncogenes, which are cancer-causing genes, are inactive in normal cells.
该句主句是The researchers made great progress…, 后面修饰成分是从句中套从句。先是when引导的定语从句修饰时间状语中的the early 1970s,然后是that引导的宾语从句oncogenes… are inactive in normal cells,最后是which引导的非限定性从句修饰oncogenes。
译文:研究者在70年代取得了很大的进展。当时他们发现致癌基因,即那些可以引起癌症的基因,在正常细胞中是不活动的。
②Anything from cosmic rays to radiation to diet may activate a dormant oncogene, but how remains unknown.
此句but 后为省略句,补全后为but how they may activate a dormant oncogene remains unknown.
译文:从宇宙射线到辐射到日常饮食,任何东西都有可能激活处于沉寂状态的致癌基因,但是如何激活则不为人所知。
③The exact mechanisms involved are still mysterious, but the likelihood that many cancers are initiated at the level of genes suggests that we will never prevent all cancers.
该句是but连接的复合句,后一分句中likelihood是主语,在主语后是同位语从句对它的解释;suggests为谓语。其中likelihood的意思是:可能性。如:In all likelihood, we should be away for a week. 我们很可能离开一个星期。
译文:导致癌变的确切机制仍然是个谜,但是许多癌症始于基因这一可能性表明我们将永远不能预防所有癌症。
三、作答题目,理解文章含义
13.        【答案】D
【解析】观点例证题。本题考查第一段末句在文中的作用:he (指Pasteur)discovered the causes of many kinds of infections, but it was fifty or sixty years before cures were available。这句话说明发现病因并不意味着一定能够很快找到治疗方法。同时结合该段第一句中对即将了解癌细胞成因的肯定态度以及第二句but的转折,可知作者用Pasteur之例对but后人们的态度进行反驳,提醒人们找到治癌症的方法仍然需要一段漫长的时间。由此可知,[D]选项为正确答案。
该段中Weinberg只认为人们在近十年内会对癌症的病因有很深的了解,但是这并不意味着会彻底揭开癌症的秘密,因此[A]选项不正确。[B]选项刚好与Pasteur的例子要说明的问题相反。[C]选项是草率结论。Pasteur发现传染病病因后五六十年才找到治疗方法,这并不意味着癌症亦如此。
注意:命题意图是要求考生了解文章中例证方法的写作思路。这里是先提出观点,后举例说明。
14.        【答案】D
【解析】 推理引申题。本题考查到2000年癌症患者的情况。根据第二段内容,今年(1994)有50%的癌症患者可存活5年。至2000年(6年后),此存活率将升到75%。对于一些皮肤癌患者来说,目前的5年存活率已高达90%。但是其他类型的存活数据却很让人沮丧——肺癌13%、胰腺癌2%。由此可见,存活率的稳步上升是大趋势。一些皮肤癌的存活比率已相当高但是也有些类型的癌症仍难以攻克。因此[D]选项合乎情理。为正确答案。
[A]选项不对。文中第三句指出皮肤癌患者目前的存活率已相当高,达到90%,增长余地已很少,不会再有急剧增长。[B]选项若对,则与5年存活率不符。从1994年~2000年已经有6年时间,无法确保这些人仍然在世。[C]选项与文章内容相悖。
命题意图要求考生根据原文所给数据和事实信息进行逻辑推理,排除错误选项。
15.        【答案】B
【解析】事实细节题。第三段第二句和第四句oncogenes which are cancer causing genes are inactive in normal cells… If several oncogenes are driven into action, the cell, unable to turn them off, becomes cancerous说明致癌基因在正常细胞中是不活跃的,但是如果被激活,正常细胞无力排除,它们就会转化为癌细胞,造成伤害。由此可见,[B]选项的内容与此相符,为正确答案。
[A]选项与第二句的inactive in normal cells不符。该段第四句提到“一旦被激活,健康细胞就根本起不了排斥作用”,因此[C]、[D]选项都不对,它们都忽视了“一旦被激活”这个条件。
activate意思是“使活动,起动”。drive into action的意思是“迫使……行动、生效、起作用”。命题意图要求考生准确理解第三段的内容。注意第四句中的条件句的作用是限制事情发生的条件。
16.        【答案】C
【解析】词义句意题。解释词语要结合语境和上下文。从第三段第二句和第三句… oncogenes are inactive in normal cells. Anything from cosmic rays to radiation may activate a dormant oncogene…可以分析出致癌基因原本是不活跃的,外在因素激活的只能是“不活跃,静止状态下的”致癌基因。也就是说activate的对象指的仍然应该是前一句中的inactive oncogenes,因此dormant具有与activate相反意义的特点。[C]选项为正确答案。dormant本身词义为“休眠期的、暂停活动的、潜伏的”(in a state of inactivity but awaiting development or activity),这里与inactive同义,没有二次使用是为了避免语言的重复。
[A]选项和[B]选项都不含该词义。[D]选项potential的英文含义是existing in possibility, that can or may come into existence or action,即表示可能出现的东西,而oncogene是已经存在之物,故不对。况且potential与同一句中的activate(make… active)的意思也不搭配。
四、翻译全文,再次巩固复习词汇和语法长难句
“我有极大的信心相信到这个十年期结束时我们将会详尽地知晓癌细胞的生成原因,”一位癌症专家和微生物学家罗伯特·温伯格说道。“但是,”他告诫说,“有些人认为一旦人们弄清了病因,治疗方法很快就会跟上。例如法国细菌学家巴斯德,他发现了许多传染病的成因,但治疗方法却在五六十年后才问世。”
今年,91万癌症患者中有一半将至少再活5年。国家癌症研究所估计,到2000年存活率将升至75%。现在对于一些皮肤癌来说,5年期的存活率高达90%,但其他类型癌症的存活数据却仍令人沮丧——肺癌13%,胰腺癌2%。
癌症种类现有多达120多种,发现其规律实属不易。研究者在70年代取得了很大的进展。当时他们发现致癌基因,即那些可以引起癌症的基因,在正常细胞中是不活动的。从宇宙射线到辐射到日常饮食,任何东西都有可能激活处于沉寂状态中的致癌基因,但是如何激活不为人所知。如果若干致癌基因被激活,而细胞无力排除,它们就演变成了癌细胞。
导致癌变的确切机制仍然是个谜,但是许多癌症始于基因这一可能性表明我们将永远不能预防所有癌症。“变化是进化过程中的一个正常部分,”肿瘤专家威廉·海沃德说道。环境因素永远无法完全消除,正如海沃德所指出的那样:“我们无法准备出一种抗宇宙射线的药。”
治癌前景虽然遥远,但却越来越明朗了。
“首先,我们需要了解正常细胞如何控制其本身。其次,我们必须查明细胞中是否有一定数量的基因总是造成至少部分麻烦的原因。如果我们能弄清癌症的原理,我们就能采取相应的措施。”
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